Cracovie - Monuments de Cracovie


 Le quartier juif de Kazimierz        
 Debniki
 Podgórze          
 Vieille ville de Cracovie
 Nowa Huta
 Gardens, Parks and Mounds

 KAZIMIERZ Less crowdy than the main square area, with beautiful architecture and magical atmosphere Kazimierz is a 'must see' when visiting Krakow.
 

Le quartier juif de Kazimierz

Depuis le XIV siècle, Les Juifs persécutés en Europe sont accueillis par le Roi Casimir (Kazimierz en polonais) à l'écart de Cracovie, de l'autre coté de la Vistule, dans ce qui deviendra la ville de Kazimierz. Les juifs ont des droits notamment de commerce qui permettent à leur communauté de prospérer. Pendant des siècles les communautés juives et chrétiennes cohabitent et commercent. Kazimierz s'agrandit et la population s'y densifie. Les rapports entre les communautés sont néanmoins très tendus et de nombreux pogroms ont lieu jusqu'à la partition de la Pologne au XVIIIe. De cette époque à la seconde guerre mondiale, Cracovie fait partie de l'empire austro-hongrois et Kazimierz est de nouveau un centre spirituel, intellectuel et culturel juif très important.
Pendant la seconde guerre mondiale, le quartier juif a été vidé de ses habitants. D'abord les nazis les ont regroupé dans le ghetto de Cracovie, à Podgorze avant de les déporter à Plaszow ou Auschwitz ( l'histoire de l'holocauste à Cracovie). Après 1945, le quartier est repeuplé par les prisonniers de droit commun, ce qui longtemps valu à Kazimierz la réputation d'un quartier insalubre et considéré comme dangereux.
Aujourd'hui Kazimierz est le Cracovie chéri des artistes et des étudiants. Les premiers pour l'atmosphère si particulière, les seconds notamment pour le nombre important de bars et de clubs intéressants. Kazimierz "bobo" ? En quelques sortes...

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La Vieille Synagogue
(Synagoga Stara) (XVe), la plus ancienne de Pologne. A l'époque de sa construction, ce lieu était le centre administratif et religieux de Kazimierz. Il abrite aujourd’hui un Musée de l'Histoire juive

 Szeroka 24
Remu Synagogue
la synagogue Remuh, la seule du quartier qui soit encore vouée au culte. Un petit cimetière est situé juste à côté. Datant de 1511, il est le plus ancien cimetière juif de la ville.
Szeroka 40
Isaac Synagogue Krakow Isaak Synagogue
This XVII century Synagogue has two legends inextricably tied to the synagogue. The first revolves around a miraculous dream that Jakubowicz had when he was young and impoverished. He dreamed that there was a treasure buried under a bridge in Prague. He eventually found a way to make it to Prague, but the bridge about which he had dreamed was surrounded by soldiers and there was no way to go about looked for his treasure. Young Isaac decided to tell a soldier about his dream. The soldier eventually burst into laughter, and replied that he, too, had dreamed of a treasure, but that in his dream the treasure was located under the stove of Isaac, some Jew from Kazimierz. The soldier lamented that every other Jew in Kraków was probably named Isaac! Isaac returned to his home in Kraków, moved his stove, and found an enormous treasure, which allowed him to not only expand his factory, but also build the most beautiful synagogue in the city.
Adress: Kupa 16
High Synagogue
Its name comes from the prayer room which is on the first floor. This untypical arrangement was dictated by safety concerns. At that time, the synagogue was close to the town gate which was very busy place. The ground floor was taken up by shops.It was the third to be built in the Jewish town, between 1556 and 1563.In the second half of the seventheenth century an annexe was built next to the synagogue's northern wall with a women's prayer house on its first floor.
Adress: Jozefa 38
Tempel Synagogue Tempel (Progressive) Synagogue
This reformed synagogue was put up in 1860-1862 as a result of efforts of the Association of the Reform Israelites.It is a detached object with rich neo-Renaissance architectural decorations.
The interior of the synagogue contains colorful decorations on its ceiling and gallery walls.
The Tempel was become the traditional venue for the opening concert of the annual Festival of Jewish Culture.
Adress: Miodowa 24
Wolf Popper Synagogue
It was built in 1620 by Wolf Popper, who was among the richest Jewish financiers and merchants in Krakow.Because it was not very big it was colloquially known as the Small Synagogue.
The synagogue's furnishings were either destroyed or lost in the extermination of the Krakow Jews in the Second World War. After the war the building was no longer used as a place of worship.
In 1965 it was adapted to the Krakow Cultural Centre.
Adress: Szeroka 16
Kupa Synagogue
It was built thank to Kahal funds (mi-kupat ha-kahal) and so is still known as Kupa.
It was probably completed in the 1640s. The synagogue's northern wall lay against the town defensive wall and was completely hidden by it.
During the 1939-1945 German occupation the synagogue was severely damaged.
In 2001 it was thoroughly restored.
New Cementery
It was created beyond the town limits in 1800. Enlarged a few times, it became too small and was closed in 1930s.Another cementary was built at the village, Wola Duchacka, in 1932 - not existing at present - it was profaned and liquidated by Germans.
Some of its gravestones were taken to the Plaszow camp - then being built - and laid as a pavement leading to the camp office.
Adress: Miodowa 55, behind the junction with Starowislna Str and the railway bridge
Mikveh - Jewish ritual bath
The first information about it, as historian Maier Balaban claims, could be found in the kahal status from 1595. Nowadays you can have the coffee here.
Adress: Szeroka 6
 Kazimierz's Churches
Corpus Christi Church
Adress:
Bożego Ciała Str
 DĘBNIKI Stare (Old) Debniki  is a quiet residential district located at the bend of the Wistula river, a short walk from the Wawel Castle and the Jewish Quarter Kazimierz.
In the centre of Debniki is a small square, with a local open air market where you can buy fresh flowers, fruits and vegetables all year long.
Nearby the square just at the river you can find the house where  formely Pope John Paul II used to live during his studies in Krakow 1938-1944.
The riveside of Vistula is an excellent place to have a stroll, do jogging or just rest in the shade of trees. In the summertime, you can go for a pleasant boat sightseeing-ride on the nearby river.
There is here also a cycle route leading from the city centre of Krakow along the rive to the Benedictin Monastery in Tyniec (7 km).
In the same area, just steps away there is the Museum of Japanesse Art - Manggha.
It is also worth to take a short stroll and visit probably the most suprasing places in Krakow - Twardowski Rocks
 

Vieille ville de Cracovie

Le Vieux Cracovie (ou la Vieille ville) correspond à l'intérieur des anciens rempart de la ville. Les remparts n'existe plus aujourd'hui, ils sont remplacé par une ceinture verte : les Planty (du français "plantés"). La vieille ville s'étend du Chateau royale de Wawel au sud à la fortification de défense du Barbakan au nord sur une surface relativement peu importante. Vous pouvez visiter le Vieux Cracovie en calèche, en vélo ou à pied (le centre ville est entièrement piéton). Dans la vieille ville se trouve entre autre :

* La place du marché, en polonais le Rynek ("rének" en phonétique)
* La halle aux draps, en polonais les Sukiennice ("soukiénitsé")
* L'église Notre Dame, en polonais Kosciol Mariacki ("kochtchiouw mariatski")
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La place du Marché (Rynek Glowny), couramment appelée « Rynek » (XIIIe). Il s’agit du centre économique, culturel et administratif de la ville. Avec ses quatre hectares de superficie (200 mètres de côté), le Rynek est considéré comme l’une des plus grandes places médiévales d’Europe. Elle est bordée de bâtiments dont les façades gothiques, Renaissance ou baroques dissimulent l’ancienneté. Centre le plus vivant de la ville, la place du Marché est animée par des musiciens, des calèches, etc. Vous y verrez également la statue du grand poète national Adam Mickiewicz.
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La halle aux Draps (Sukiennice)
Les principaux monuments de Cracovie sont concentrés sur le Rynek. Le centre de la place est occupé par la halle aux Draps (Sukiennice), construite au XIVe siècle. Elle doit son architecture Renaissance à un incendie de 1555, suite auquel elle dut être reconstruite par l’architecte italien Giovanni il Mosca. C’est un important lieu de commerce depuis le Moyen Âge. Aujourd’hui encore, les arcades couvertes abritent de multiples échoppes de souvenirs et d’artisanat. L’étage est, quant à lui, occupé par le Musée des Beaux-Arts.
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La basilique Sainte-Marie
La place du Marché est dominée par la très belle basilique Notre-Dame (Kosciol Mariacki), construite au XIVe siècle dans un style gothique. Sa façade se caractérise par ses deux tours de hauteurs inégales. La plus haute des deux tours est réputée pour le « Hejnal » qui y est joué chaque jour, chaque heure, en direction d’un point cardinal différent. Le Hejnal est une tradition ancienne de la ville consistant à jouer toutes les heures du haut de cette tour un morceau de trompette qui s’interrompt brusquement. Cette tradition fait référence à une attaque mongole de 1241, au cours de laquelle le guetteur fut tué par une flèche alors qu’il sonnait l’alerte.
La basilique Notre-Dame abrite de nombreuses œuvres de l’artiste de Nuremberg Veit Stoss, parmi lesquelles figure un chef d’œuvre : un monumental retable de style gothique tardif. Derrière cette œuvre, remarquez également les très beaux vitraux, qui comptent parmi les plus intéressants du pays.
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Barbican
The Barbican, one of the finest European monuments of medieval architecture, was built from 1498 to 1499 as an additional protection of St Florian’s Gate. At present the Barbican together with the St Florian’s Gate and the remnants of the city walls belongs to the finest examples of historic European defensive structures.
St Florian's Gate
The main city gate was built in the end of 13th century to protect the northern entrance to the city. On the both sides of the gate are Medieval city walls. Nowadays they are covered by paintings and handmade artifacts.
City Hall Tower
The tower was built as a part of the Town Hall probably at the beginning of the 14th century.
Its walls are decorated with stone laid in the form of pointed arcades and vertical stripes. The tower is topped with a Baroque crown.The room on the ground floor is graced by a collection of craft signs of stonemason masters from 1444 preserved inside: a collection unique both for Poland and Europe. Formerly, the room on the first floor with cross-rib vaulting was a chapel ( now tourist information point).The third floor offers a magnificent panorama of Krakow.
Avant de quitter le fameux Rynek, remarquez la tour de l’ancien hôtel de ville, dernier vestige d’un bâtiment gothique détruit au XIXe siècle. A voir également dans le centre ville, le Collegium Maius (rue Jagiellonska) est un ancien bâtiment de l’université de Cracovie, l’une des plus vieilles d’Europe de l’Est. L’Université Jagellone fut en effet fondée en 1364 par Casimir le Grand. Centre intellectuel majeur en Europe à la fin du Moyen Âge, elle connut son apogée au XVe siècle, période à laquelle fut construit le Collegium Maius. Sa visite permet de découvrir l’atmosphère de cette université ancienne, grâce notamment au Musée Universitaire, où est présentée une collection d’instruments scientifiques. Vous pourrez notamment y voir le fameux globe terrestre Jagellon (1510), comprenant la première mention du continent américain.
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 PODGÓRZE The Podgórze district is the home of mysterious prehistoric earthworks, ancient buildings and sites known from 'Schindler's List' as well as beautiful landscaped parks and unique nature reserves. The area offers exceptional opportunities to explore natural surroundings in the historical settings on the south bank of the Vistula river.
We reccomoend website dedicated to Podgórze district:
 NOWA HUTA The Nowa Huta






Dans un tout autre genre, le quartier Nowa Huta, à l’Ouest de Cracovie, est également intéressant à visiter. Il s’agit d’un complexe industriel de fonderie et d’habitations socialistes, qui devait constituer la première ville communiste construite de toute pièce en Pologne. Les autorités choisirent d’implanter cette ville à côté de Cracovie, afin de lutter contre la tradition cléricale et conservatrice de l’ancienne capitale royale. Dans les années 50, on fit donc venir des milliers d’ouvriers, pour qui la construction de cette ville représentait une opportunité d’avancée sociale. Mais les confrontations entre ces ouvriers et les autorités communistes ne tardèrent pas à apparaître et le quartier devint le centre de la contestation contre le pouvoir en place.
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Gardens,Parks&Mounds
Planty Park
is situated in the direct downtown of Krakow. This city garden surrounding the oldest part of Krakow is unique in the European scale. The garden in a form of greenbelt is one of the greatest Krakow parks. Lenght of the Planty amounts of app. 4 km, whereas its total space is 21 ha. The garden is entered into the I UNESCO World Cultural and Natural Heritage List.
Blonia
A great meadow located in the city centre ( 15 minutes from the Main Square), inside the triangle of Focha, 3 Maja and Piastowska Streets, just opposite to the National Museum.
Blonia hosts numerous events, meetings, concerts, fetes and exhibitions.
Wolski Forest
This is the largest forested park in Krakow, its area exceeds 420 ha. Within its area 8 walking routes, bicycle, horseriding, and cross-country skiing routes have been designed. In 1927 the ZOO was opened here;  also many wild animal species have their natural habitats in Wolski Forest.
The park is located in the western part of the city between  Wola Justowska district and Bielany. You can get there by bus 134.
Twardowskiego Rocks/ Zakrzówek
The reservoir in Zakrzówek was developed in 1990 as a result of the inundation of the former quarry. It contains two water reservoirs connected by a channel. Its depth  reaches 30 m and is filled with unique, clean blue water. The name derives from the legendary Master  of Magic, Twardowski, who ran his famous school of magic and witchcraft there.
Twardowskiego Rocks are  a popular climbing site.
Jordan Park
was designed at the dawn of 19th century on the initiative of Henryk Jordan, a medical doctor and social worker.
The autor intended to design a park dedicated to physical education for youth, therefore numerous playgrounds, as well as courts and pitches for various sports, bicycle paths, a ramp for roller skaters and seasonal gastronomic facilities are situated there. It has  almost 22 ha.
The Archeological Museum Garden
Situated behind a high wall built along the Planty and Poselska Street is one of the greatest gardens in the downtown.
Classical and popular music concerts are organized there.
Wawel Hill Gardens
Green areas at the Wawel Hill within the defensive walls are app 2 ha of space.
For the most part these consist of historical royal gardens and a spacious external courtyard. The internal courtyard is the former settlement of the sub castle area servicing both the castle and cathedral in the Middle Ages.
On sunny days there is a stunning view of Polish Tatra Mountains (100 km!)
Here are 4 Mounds in Krakow
In the middle of the 19th century, the Austrian authorities decided to turn Cracow into one of the fortresses in the frontier defence system of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy.The Austrians commenced the construction of the stronghold, also known as the “Kościuszko” stronghold: the foot of the Mound was encircled by brick revetment. Within its limits a neo-Gothic chapel of Blessed Bronisława was built.
Krak's Mound
Marschall Pilsudski Mound
This is the tallest mound in Krakow.
It is devoted to the memory of Józef Piłsudski - Polish national hero.
It is beautifully situated in Wolski Forest, 383 m above sea level, just short walk from the ZOO.
Wanda's Mound
Ogrd Doswiadczen Krakow Stanislaw Lem Garden of Experiences
An open-air education exhibition covers the area of 6 ha within the Polish Aviators Park in Krakow.
Adress: Al. Pokoju 67       
zoo Krakow

Zoo

The ZOO is located on a Jurassic plateau at 345 metres above sea level, in the middle of a woodland park known as the Wolski Forest (Las Wolski), which covers an area of nearly 500 hectares 10 kilometres to the west of the city center. The Krakow ZOO exhibits around 1500 animals. The garden has a unique friendly atmosphere and is  a favourite recreational site of Krakow residents.
Adress: Kasy Oszczędności Miasta Krakowa 14
Krakow ogrod botaniczny; botanical garden

The Garden was founded in 1783 and is the oldest botanical garden in Poland.

There are three greenhouse complexes located in the garden: palm house together with tropical greenhouses complex. Apart from greenhouses, a few alpine gardens exhibiting mountain plants.
Adress: Kopernika Street 27